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#### Course Highlights

#### Course Description

#### Technical Requirements

Special software is required to use some of the files in this course: .xls.

## Syllabus

## Subject Overview

The goal of 3.044 is to teach cost-effective and sustainable production of solid material with a desired geometry, structure or distribution of structures, and production volume. Toward this end, it is organized around different types of phase transformations which determine the structure in various processes for making materials, in roughly increasing order of entropy change during those transformations.

### Solid Heat Treatment

This section will take advantage of the mathematical similarity between diffusion and heat conduction to introduce you to the phenomenon of heat transfer by conduction, convection and radiation. These tools will provide understanding on how to induce or avoid the various chemical reactions, precipitation, annealing and other solid-state phase transformations learned in 3.022.

### Liquid-Solid Processing

Most large-scale processes for making solids involve the liquid state at some point, and the initial microstructure formed during the liquid-solid transition often persists into the final part. This section will deal with solidification and precipitation/coating reactions from solution, with a focus on the mechanisms which determine structure in this processing step.

### Fluid Behavior

Fluid behavior and fluid-solid interactions are crucial to understanding many processes. This section will focus on concepts of drag force on solids and fluids in relative motion, from particles to flat surfaces to porous media. It will close with a discussion of overall mass and momentum balances on large control volumes.

### Deformation Processing

This section will introduce mechanical deformation processes from sheet forming to sintering, which provide opportunities for inexpensively forming very advantageous structures on a large scale. It will build on concepts from the previous section to treat deforming solids as moving fluids, and also deformation mechanisms discussed in 3.032.

### Vapor-Solid Processing

As the transformation with the largest entropy change, vapor-solid processes present unique opportunities for precise control of structure.

### Special Topics

3.044 will close with a set of lectures summarizing and contextualizing course material and placing it in the context of society at large.

#### Prerequisites

3.012, 3.022

#### Textbook

There is no required text for 3.044. The topics and order of coverage are such that we will use excerpts from the following textbooks:

Ashby, M. F. *Materials Selection in Mechanical Design.* 3rd ed. Boston, MA: Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, 2005. ISBN: 9780750661683.

Bird, R. B., W. E. Stewart, and E. N. Lightfoot. *Transport Phenomenon.* New York, NY: J. Wiley and Sons, 2001. ISBN: 9780471410775.

Flemings, M. *Solidification Processing.* New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 1974. ISBN: 9780070212831.

Incropera, F. P., and D. P. DeWitt. *Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer.* 5th ed. New York, NY: J. Wiley and Sons, 2001. ISBN: 9780471386506.

Poirier, D. R., and G. H. Geiger. *Transport Phenomena in Materials Processing.* Warrendale, PA: Minerals, Metals & Materials Society, 1998. ISBN: 9780873392723.

#### Grading

There will be two tests and a final exam. Grades will be determined from exams and eight homework assignments as follows:

ACTIVITIES | PERCENTAGEs |
---|---|

Problem Sets | 16% |

Test 1 | 22% |

Test 2 | 22% |

Final Exam | 40% |

# Calendar

The calendar below provides information on the course's lecture (L) and recitation (R) sessions.

AP = Prof. Adam Powell, RK = Prof. Randolph Kirchain, WP = Wanida Pongsaksawad (course TA)

SES # | TOPICS | MOTIVATING PROCESSES | INSTRUCTORS | KEY DATES |
---|---|---|---|---|

L1 | Introduction | AP | ||

R1 | Math Review | WP | ||

I. Solid Heat Treatment |
||||

L2 | Introduction Energy Conservation and 1-D Conduction |
Various | AP | |

L3 | Sphere Generation Multilayers |
AP | ||

L4 | Multilayers (cont.) Biot # Finite Differences |
Glass-ceramics | AP | |

R2 | Heat Flow through Multilayer Sheet and Cylinder | WP | ||

L5 | Finite Differences (cont.) Radiation |
Polymer Extrusion | AP | |

L6 | Dimensional Analysis | Furnace Wall | David Dussault (Guest Lecturer) | Problem set 1 due |

L7 | Radiation (cont.) Convective Cooling Curves Dimensionless Graphs |
Thermal Spray | AP | |

R3 | Dimensional Analysis | Jose Vieyra | ||

L8 | Convective Cooling Curves (cont.) | AP | ||

II. Engineering Economics |
||||

L9 | Introduction | RK | ||

L10 | Cost Modeling I: Unit Operations | Pizza Oven | RK | Problem set 2 due |

R4 | Economic Models in Engineering | WP | ||

L11 | Cost Modeling II: Cost Factors and Scale | RK | ||

III. Liquid-Solid Processing |
||||

L12 | Moving Bodies | Vacuum Arc Remelting | AP | |

L13 | Moving Bodies (cont.) Stability |
Casting | AP | Problem set 3 due |

R5 | Casting: Solid-Liquid Process | WP | ||

L14 | Stability in Alloy Solidification | Injection Molding | AP | |

IV. Fluid Behavior |
||||

L15 | Introduction Newtonian Fluids |
AP | ||

L16 | Test 1 | AP | ||

R6 | Fluid Flow and Drag Force on a Sphere, with Examples | WP | ||

L17 | Viscous Shear | AP | ||

L18 | Tubes Flow Rate Sphere Flow |
Precipitation, Bubbles | AP | |

L19 | Sphere Drag and Reynolds Number | AP | ||

L20 | Engineering and Society Particle Velocity |
Lessons of 9/11 | AP | |

L21 | Friction Factors Boundary Layers |
AP | ||

L22 | Plate Drag Turbulence |
Fermentation | AP | Problem set 4 due |

R7 | Friction Factors and Drag Forces Turbulence |
WP | ||

L23 | Turbulence (cont.) | Fermentation | AP | |

L24 | Batch and Continuous Flow Reactors | Fermentation | AP | Problem set 5 due |

L25 | Chemical Reactors Porous Media |
AP | ||

R8 | Batch/Continuous Flow Reactors Flow through Porous Media |
WP | ||

L26 | Porous Media (cont.) | AP | ||

V. Deformation Processing |
||||

L27 | Non-newtonian Flow | Various | AP | Problem set 6 due |

L28 | Deformation Mechanisms | Polymers, Metals | AP | |

R9 | Test 2 Review Warm Up Practice Problems |
WP | ||

L29 | Sintering | HIP, CM | AP | |

L30 | Test 2 | AP | ||

L31 | Consolidation Processes | HIP, CM | AP | |

VI. Vapor-Solid Processes |
||||

L32 | Evaporation Processes | Zirconia PVD | AP | |

R10 | Sintering (Stage I and Stage II) Evaporation |
WP | ||

L33 | Vapor Phase Transport Structure Formation |
Thin Films | AP | Problem set 7 due |

L34 | Patterning Polymer Deposition |
Polymer Sputter | AP | |

L35 | Coherent/Expitaxial Films Nanostructure Formation |
VLS | AP | |

R11 | Mean Free Path Structure Zone Model Fabrication Processes |
WP | ||

VII. Special Topics |
||||

L36 | Process Selection | AP | Problem set 8 due | |

L37 | Costs of Materials Usage | RK | ||

L38 | Wrap Up | AP |